Abstracts and Papers

CHINA, TAIWAN: ABSTRACTS AND PAPERS

摘     要

从物质文化研究的视角看中国艺术研究院音乐研究所所藏音响档案

2004年中国艺术研究院音乐研究所“中国传统音乐音响档案数字化”项目得到了联合国教科文组织社会信息部的立项资助。这批音响档案,属于20世纪后半叶中国大陆音乐学者田野考察录音的结果,并在1997年获得联合国教科文组织颁发的首批以音响档案为对象的“世界记忆”称号。我本人有幸作为该项目的主持人,在项目的实施中对这批音响从物质媒介,录制设备、录制方法和保存方式分别进行了考察。通过该项目的实行,我们深感其背后隐含着大陆学界的录音藏品观念,亦可从一个侧面看出中国大陆民族音乐学在20世纪后半叶的某种倾向。
这批藏品虽然为中国音乐的建设发挥了重要作用,但从档案保存的角度来说却差强人意。本文仅就人为因素导致的藏品损耗来透视背后隐藏的学术倾向,如:藏品使用中存在大量因使用非标准盘夹引起的变形毁损;元数据缺省造成藏品保存中物理信号的丢失等。如此等等就录音藏品在保存中出现的人为损耗,与这些录音在中国音乐建设中的作用形成了巨大的反差。那么,是否可以这样设想:这批录音藏品仅仅在其以曲目体现出的音乐内容上为学者们所重视,而作为以物质文化体现出的藏品自身,以及对这些藏品作为“历史场所”的档案意义却没有被充分地认识。换句话说,这批录音并非作为独立的历史性音响档案保存的,而更多地是作为音乐研究、创作、教学的辅助性资源存在,并突出地反映为其从采录到使用的“节目”取向。
这种“节目”取向,实际上与“文本式田野工作”、强调“收集”的观念相吻合。而这种对于中国传统和民间音乐自身家底的收集、整理,一直是20世纪中国音乐工作者勉力为之的重任。它的主旨很明确,为了建设新的中国民族音乐体系,必须对“悠久而深厚的传统及其新发展有一个比较全面的了解”。而文字文献式的“中国民间音乐五大集成”即其范例。录音即此类作业的有声文本。因而,其“节目”取向更重在提供曲目的有声资料,尤其是提供创作、欣赏、教学、研究的资料,而非历史的记忆。
总的来说,本人认为,音响档案不仅是作为存放在档案馆中的“物”,更是作为了解档案背后人与人、人与历史关系的桥梁。由此,藏品本身才具有了“历史场所”的意义。

The Sounds Archives of the Music Research Institute: A Perspective on the Study of Material Culture

XIAO Mei

In 2004, a project named as “Digitization of Recordings of Traditional Chinese Music” proposed by the Music Research Institute (MRI) of the Chinese Academy of Arts has obtained fund from Communication & Information Sector under UNESCO. The collections included in UNESCO’s Memory of the World Register in 1997 contain unique field recordings from the 1950s onward. I took as a leading participant responsible for the investigation on physical medium, recording facilities, recording methods, and preservation of recordings in the whole process of implementation. Through this project, the mainland scholars’ concept of recording collection can reflect a tendency of Chinese mainland ethnomusicology in the second half of 20th century.

Although these collections have great effects for the construction of Chinese music, but preservation of these collections are not very satisfied.  This article will analyze the wear and tear of archives by factitious reasons, then lead to an academic tendencies. For example, there exist a large number of deformation and damage caused by the use of non-standard disk folders; loss of physical signal caused by the default of meta-data in the preservation, etc.. All of these man-made spoilages appear in the record preservation, formed a great contrast with the effect of those recordings in Chinese music construction. Now these sound archives only can be attached importance by scholars in repertoire, but not as a material culture , scholars should pay more attention to those archives’ significance as “historical sites”. In other words, these recordings only exist as a auxillary resources of music researching, composition and teaching ,rather than a stand-alone historic audio files to be preserved.  So such circumstances reflect a “repertoire” tendency from its recording to use of the recording.

The “repertoire” tendency is coincided with the concept of “text fieldwork” and “collection”. To collect and collate Chinese traditional and folk music has been a big task done by Chinese music workers in the 20th century. Its main purpose is very clear that in order to establish a new national music system in China,  the “long and deep tradition and its new development” should be completely understood. The text-based documents of “the five major integration of Chinese folk music” are the paradigm.  Recording is the phonic text of such operations. As a result, the “repertoire” tendency is more important of providing information of pieces, in particular, providing information of composition, enjoying, teaching and study, but not the memory of history.

In sumary, I think that sounds archives as a “material culture” is considered not only “objects” kept in the archives, but also a bridge throught which we can explore the relationship of people , the relationship between people and history behind the files.  As a result, the archive itself has got the significance of “historical sites”.
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The Anthropology of Music in China
LUO Qin

Part One

Historical Trajectory of Study on Chinese Traditional Music
The situation of Chinese music in the 20th century began a new page, it has been embodied as the following transformations showed below:
1) Western perspective in reviewing traditional Chinese music; 2) Sorting the history of Chinese music tradition; 3) Classifying traditional music, researching on and creating out of folk music resources; 4) Analyzing musical morphology; 5) Cognizing music culture.
From 1980s to the beginning of 1990s,a considerable number of scholars devoted into this field and contributed a lot in introducing and disseminating the idea of Ethnomusicology, many of whom have put forth unique visions in their publications, all of which opened a new age of multi-perspectives on music cultures.
Since 1980s, the development of Ethnomusicology in China can also be divided into three stages that was already described and summarized by in Alan Merriam in his Merriam’s early argument.
1) The study of music in culture: music≠culture; 2) The study of music as culture: music≈culture; 3) Music is culture: music=culture.
Scholars shift academic emphasis, become involved into realizing what music culture is, and contribute a great deal in the disciplinary expansion through a broader view and an in-depth thinking. 1) These three stages are not replaceable, but interrelated or even juxtaposed. 2) These three stages are complimentary. Music creation, analysis and cognition of music culture are three necessary constitutional aspects in the course of development of Chinese traditional music. 3) Transformation process is a natural stage of maturation in disciplinary development.

Part Two

Anthropology of Music in 21st Century China
As noted above, with the gradual disciplinary expansion, people are increasingly realizing the importance of disciplinary construction. In order to accelerate the expansion of Ethnomusicology and to implement the strategy of “reasonable, efficient, and visionary” in 21st century China, we should develop a clear core idea; should integrate a group of talent scholars as a driving force; and also should establish a guideline that guarantees a smooth academic research.
In 2005, the “Anthropology of Music  Division, E -Institutes of Shanghai Universities”, was established in Shanghai Conservatory of Music. Grounding on the prestigious academic tradition of Shanghai Conservatory of Music, our general objectives are set to establish a modern information platform; to integrate and optimize relevant academic resources through jointing effort with distinguished scholars from domestic and abroad universities and academic institutes; to operate academically autonomous, financially and administratively independent under the orientation of Shanghai Education Council, who emphasizes specifically on the foundational, cross-disciplinary, visionary and realistic academic idea. We are going to base our research center in Shanghai, root in China, and look toward the outside world, with an idea of “construction of anthropology of music in  Chinese vision” as our goal. The E-Institute will be followed by the following three guidelines:
1) Ideas and method in research of Anthropology of music in international context; 2) Chinese traditional music’s audio and video behavior in domestic context; 3) Urban music culture in Shanghai region.
Under the above three guidelines, with a smooth and extensive academic exchange mechanism, and a series of related fundamental theoretical research, we are going to try our best to make the E-institute the most important research base in the field of Anthropology of music in China within the coming future 10 years of efforts, meanwhile we are doing our best to make it an example in the International tendency of Musical Anthropological Studies for studying musical localization
2008-10

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Who is the audience? Local Religious Music Popular in Yunnan Province

ZHANG Boyu

In recent years, an interesting phenomenon has developed. Traditional music genres in present China seem to have recovered, and their rejuvenation can be realized. What are the essential reasons for the initial disappearance and later rejuvenation of traditional music? Or “who is the audience?”
This research is mainly based on the field trip to Datun county, Yunnan province in 2006. Here is popular a local musical organization called Huashan Tan which plays music for the local religious and social activities. Generally, there would be no audiences during the whole process of performance, but instead by status of gods, labels with god’s names, etc. After close investigation, we have found that the essential reason for the disappearance and rejuvenation of traditional music is that it is part of a belief system. The audience is the gods, as well as performers themselves because they are satisfying themselves by believing that the gods are satisfied.

谁是听众?云南地区化信仰音乐
(摘要)

近些年来出现了一个非常有意思的现象,即传统音乐又逐渐地受到了人们的重视,出现了复兴的景象。传统音乐的消亡和复兴的内在因素是什么?谁是传统音乐的听众呢?
本文的研究主要是基于2006年在云南个旧市大屯镇的采风活动基础之上的,这里流传着一个地方性音乐组织,称为“化善坛”。该组织主要演奏的是一种服务于当地的民间信仰和民俗活动的音乐,即“洞经音乐”。 一般说来,在该音乐的演奏过程中是没有听众的。演奏时,演奏者们面对的是佛教的佛像、道教的各种神像,或其它当地百姓所信仰的具有超自然能力的神灵的雕像或牌位。在深入地调查研究之后可以发现,目前传统音乐的消亡或复兴的主要内在因素是信仰系统。当地百姓(也包括演奏者们)所信仰的神灵们是这种演奏的主要听众。与此同时,演奏者们在愉悦自己所信仰的神灵的时候使自己也得到了心灵的净化,并得到审美体验。所以,演奏者自身也构成了此音乐演奏的听众群
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Integrated Study of Chinese Traditional Music Living Resources
YANG Hong

In the 21st century, ethnomusicology tends to welcome an integrated study as a reason of diversifications of research theories and methods.
1. An integrated study of traditional music living resources conforms to the globalization trend of ethnomusicology research.
The living resources of traditional music are the currently practiced music and culture ecologies. They are rooted in the folk historical culture soil with unique artistic forms, and are playing vital roles in our social life.
(1) An integrated study of traditional music living resources conforms to the need of large-scale complicated society and with practical significance.
In this complicated society nowadays, ethnography-like active state observation is desirable, so to obtain object samples which adapts to different regions; cultural relatedness of these samples will lead to large-scale cross-cultural study. This is the so called integrated study.
(2) An integrated study of traditional music living resources is the interdisciplinary study of 21st century ethnomusicology
Since the 1980s, the influence of globalization is more and more noticeable. The interdisciplinary integrated study already became one main direction in ethnomusicology. The integrated study is to cross-culturally, systematically and comprehensively study one or a group of music and culture events applying theories from both eastern and western ethnomusicology based on the event’s unique characteristics and synthesize multi-dimensional angle of views. Thus, it is a three-dimensional thought crystallization. We should investigate from spot, i.e., living resources of one particular music genre, to surface, i.e., music living resource surroundings, to comprehensive multi-dimensional understandings.
2. Theory Construction of the Integrated Study of Traditional Music Living Resources
The culture’s major characteristic is to satisfy human desire, in particular, conformity needs, including society, politics, economy, culture, etc. In 2003, Timothy Rice proposed the three dimensional theory frame of time, place, and metaphor in studying music experience and music ethnography, which provided the theory support for the author’s integrated study model as indicated below in studying music living resources. This model was further improved after through explorations.

The integrated study model is composed by four dimensions, i.e., space-time, music event, social field, and culture metaphor. These four coordinates are interrelated, and cross supported with each other to form a triangular pyramid.  The space-time coordinate establishes the profound connotation of historical culture accumulations, provides historical and contemporary location support to the cultural metaphor; social field constructs the research object’s social location and social influence; music event is the concrete cultural carrier in social field, is the key for music ethnography; and cultural metaphor is the explanation of culture content and essence connotation of music events. Interactions of these four constitute the specialty of an integrated study.
3. From the “Xikou Road(Road to Western)” to “Qin Zhidao (Straight Road of Qin Dynasty)”: brand-new cultural experiences of integrated traditional music study
In the Chinese Shanxi, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia area, several nationalities are living here. The regional Chinese traditional music genres are numerous along the Xi Kou Road. Meanwhile, here spreads the renowned Qin Zhi Dao. These two roads merge with each other from Erdos to Baotou. This road culture leads to the dissemination of both culture and music.
From 2002 to 2005, the author has conducted integrated study of the Er Ren Tai music genre along this Xikou Road.  From the angle of historical constitution and society maintenance, to explore the culture context of this region since Han and Tang Dynasty, and unearth the historical origin of the merging of Mongolian and Han, to find out that the popular region of Er Ren Tai not only has geography culture characteristic, but also is the juxtaposition and the collision place of northern Jin, North Shaanxi, the Erdos edge culture tectonic plates, which resulted in this Zou Xi Kou social phenomenon which then produced Er Ren Tai. In Xikou Road culture, Er Ren Tai is always following the regional culture development. It lives in villages along Jin, Shaanxi, and Inner Mongolia border area, accompanied with various rural customs, constitutes the rich colorful music event activities. As a represent of Xi Kou road culture, Er Ren Tai integrates with its culture surroundings inseparable. The rich music event varieties unfold its close relationships with rural customs, its social and cultural existence significance in villages. The author participated nine music and cultural events which revealed metaphors like art, entertainment, symbol, identity, social behavior and commodity. The village history is extended through the traditional festival, the god birth holiday celebration, the folk belief extension and the village daily customs. Folk theatrical troupes reflect the Zou Xi Kou culture, or an alternative of traditional cultural heritages.
As a “secular entertainment”, Er Ren Tai not only has close interactions with the region culture, but also is an important culture constituent.
From the summer of 2006 to now, the author also conducted fieldwork along the Qin Zhi Dao. From Shaanxi’s Xianyang Chunhua, to the Inner Mongolian Baotou region, the ancient times Straight Road of Qin, the Xikou road, the contemporary Xi’an – Baotou highway, all expend here. Here maintains the fusion of agriculture culture and the prairie culture, with rich natural resources, and music culture resources. At the current stage, the author has completed the first two milestones of research along this road.  Music events investigated in this research include Baotou city park senior Er Ren Tai performance, the Mongolian national minority music cultural performance in Baogete, Mon-Han tune and Er Ren Tai in Mongolian villages near Yellow River, Erdos feast song in Ikin Huo Luoqi, Mon-Han tune in Dzunger, the wedding ceremony music in Erdos, the Nadam in Uxin Qi village, Erdos long tune and short tune in Uxin Qi Du Gui Long, the Yulin song, the Shan Bei Shuo Shu in the temple fair in Tong Wan Cheng, etc.
By the integrated study of traditional music culture along Qin Zhi Dao, we found that although different music event may have its unique cultural metaphor, they all share some common historical culture connotations. Qin Zhi Dao shortened the distance between inner land (south of Yellow River) and the border areas, strengthened the economy and cultural exchange of Han and other minorities, promoted the productivity level.

中国传统音乐活态资源的整合研究
中国音乐学院  杨红

21世纪,伴随着世界民族音乐学理论研究与方法的多样化,民族音乐学日益趋向整体化研究。笔者近几年通过对“西口路”和“秦直道”沿线高原联袂传统音乐的实地考察,从实践中提出了对中国传统音乐活态资源整合研究的方略,从中获得深刻的音乐文化体验和田野中的音乐民族志构建。

一.    传统音乐活态资源整合研究符合当今民族音乐学研究的全球化趋势
传统音乐的活态资源即指当今鲜活的音乐文化生态,它以其特有的艺术形式,根植于民间历史文化土壤中,在人们社会生活中发挥着重要的作用。我们只有在现代田野工作中将传统音乐以及存活相连的文化事象一并整合考察,才能使传统音乐鲜活的生存样式得到完整地保护,并从本质上加以认知和解释。
1. 传统音乐活态资源的整合研究是应当今大规模的复杂社会所需,具有较强现实意义的创新课题。
现今一个复杂的社会需要民族志式的活态观察,以获得不同地区相适应的客观真实样本,而不同样本之间的文化关联性将成为综合研究,也就是整合性研究。笔者2003年的北京市人文社科研究课题《当代社会变迁中的二人台研究》和2007年教育部人文社科研究项目《中国西北高原民族音乐文化的保护与开发——“秦直道”沿线高原联袂传统音乐文化活态现状的实地考察与研究》,其选题均从这些方面加以考虑。
2. 传统音乐活态资源的整合研究是21世纪民族音乐学之跨学科的综合研究
随着全球化影响日益增长,跨学科的整体研究已经成为民族音乐学的主要方向之一。传统音乐的整合研究就是在中外民族音乐学研究学理上,根据研究对象特质,系统、全面、整体地关照一个音乐文化事象和群体的音乐文化事象丛,进行跨学科综合考察研究。另外,传统音乐活态资源的整合研究也是立体化思维的结晶,以多维视角,从某一“乐种”的活态资源(点),到综合性音乐活态资源(面),采用现代田野手段,进行综合考察与研究,企望在历时与共时的多维纵横交织的坐标中,找到合理的文化解释。

二.    传统音乐活态资源整合研究模式的理论构想
所有文化的特质都是为了满足人的需要服务的,特别是整合的需要。其中有社会、政治、经济、文化等领域。2003年,美国学者雷斯提出了时间、地点、隐喻是研究音乐体验和音乐民族志的三维理论框架,为笔者对活态音乐的整合研究框架提供了理论支持。整合研究则是在此基础上的进一步深化和多维思考。

时空坐标:中国有着几千年的文化传统,若要认识音乐的文化风貌,必需着眼于历史背景,从它所处于的本土概念认知模式,以及展现音乐行为的整体环境和文化意义着手。这种从历时、共时、地域、社会、概念、行为、个体、音声之间形成互动关联的思维,是构成时空坐标的因素的理论基础。时空坐标即指从历时(即按照年代顺序的)和共时(当今的时间和体验)双视角来进行跨时空的思维考虑,两者时常需要互动和转换思考。
社会场域:如何审定研究对象,需要由社会影响下的不同的点组成,一是要确定这些具有社会意义上的“点”,即典型个体、亚文化、区域、地域、国家、全球等,二是在研究对象具体的活动场域,确定研究脉络,这里又是具有一定地理位置的场域。笔者以传承人、传承链(组织)、音乐形态和表演、传承曲目、活动区域以及生态环境为基本内容。
音乐事象:音乐事象是一个集合名词,是音乐与其相适应的文化密切结合的混合载体。
文化隐喻:这是音乐事象中所包含的文化内涵。音乐体验和文化是通过人类的思维和认知而相互映像,音乐体验是文化的一种折射,音乐体验同时也推动了文化的展示。
上述四个维度,是互动的关系,时空坐标奠定了历史文化积淀的深刻内涵,给文化隐喻提供历史与现今时空的支撑,社会场域是在时空坐标下对研究对象的社会脉络及层面的构建,音乐事象是社会场域下的具体文化载体,是考察音乐民族志所在,而文化隐喻则是音乐事象的具体文化本质内涵和意义的阐释,四者互动从而构成整合研究之特色。

三.    从“西口路”到“秦直道”:传统音乐整合研究的全新文化体验
在中国晋西北、陕西、内蒙西部接壤的这片广漠无垠的黄土地上,多态的传统音乐品种,构成了蒙汉音乐各异并相互交融的西口路文化区域。若追溯其更深远的历史文化背景,在历史上还有著名的秦直道在该地域延伸,这两条路在鄂尔多斯到包头重合,均体现出“路文化”的整体传播特色,而从现今的活态音乐中均能显现出中原文化、北方匈奴文化的遗留以及成吉思汗留驻文化的并置及相融一体的历史文化特质。
笔者于2002年至2005年,对西口路上的二人台音乐文化进行了整体研究,将“二人台”置于历史与地理纵横交错的时空坐标中,从历史构成、社会维护的角度,探究汉唐以来的晋北地缘文化背景以及蒙汉文化交融的文化历史渊源,从中看出二人台的流行地域既呈现出地缘文化的地理特征,又是晋北、陕北、鄂尔多斯部三大边缘文化板块并置与碰撞之处,最终形成与二人台产生有着直接因果关系的“走西口”这一社会经济文化现象。西口路文化中的二人台演出始终伴随着区域文化的展现,从而构成丰富多彩的音乐事象活动,展现出二人台与乡俗礼仪密不可分的整体关系。笔者曾经亲身参与考察了二人台参与其中,并从中发挥主要作用和支撑地位的9个音乐文化事象,显露出具有作为艺术、娱乐、象征、身份认可、社会行为、以及商品等隐喻维内涵,通过传统节日、神诞的节日庆典、民间信仰的延续和乡村日常的人生仪礼,折射出 西口路传统的“文化遗留”,也凸显了社会变迁的轨迹。二人台作为一种“世俗的娱乐”,不仅与地域文化产生密切的互动,还是西口路文化的重要组成部分。
笔者自2006年夏至今,在西口路音乐研究的基础上,又对秦直道沿线传统音乐活态现状展开田野调查,从陕西的咸阳淳化,到内蒙古包头区域,古代的秦直道、近代的西口路、当代的西安-包头高速公路,都在这个地区伸展,这里又为高原联袂地域,融合农耕文化和草原文化,具有埋藏很深而又丰厚的民族音乐文化资源。目前已初步完成北段及中段的考察任务。这里,北方少数民族与汉文化交融的音乐遗存及其近代蒙汉文化交融的活态现状复杂而多元化,音乐事象包括包头城市公园的老年二人台演出、宝格特风情园的蒙族音乐文化展演、黄河边汉化的蒙古村落的蛮汉调和二人台演唱、伊金霍洛旗鄂尔多斯宴歌、准格尔的蛮汉调、鄂尔多斯婚礼音乐(蒙汉结合)、乌审旗嘎查村那达慕、乌审旗沙漠草原牧民家(独贵龙)的鄂尔多斯长调及短调歌曲、榆林小曲、统万城下庙会的陕北说书等。多态的音乐事象具有其特有的文化隐喻所指,有着大一统深厚的历史文化内涵。秦直道大大缩短了中原与边疆的距离,加强了汉族与少数民族的经济、文化交流,促进了民族的融合、文化的融合以及多民族国家的统一。
DOWNLOAD YANG Hong’s paper in Chinese here

DOWNLOAD YANG Hong’s paper in English here

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Correspondence and Interaction: Chinese Musical History and Ethnomusicology
—From the “Ontology of Yue(樂)” and “Synchronic Approach in Diachronic Studies”

XIU Hai-lin

1、Correspondences of the thinking model of Chinese “Ontology of Yue(樂)” and the theoretical model of Ethnomusicology on the Ontology level

The matter of existence is primary in philosophy studies, while the matter about musical existence is also primary and is one of the basic theoretical foundations in musicology. It is also the foundation to study cross cultural system of musicology.
Now, we are confident that, in Chinese traditional musical thinking, the concept of music is not only the “tone” as most western researchers stated, but an integration of behaviour, formation, and idea.
Before Qin dynasty, Chinese people had distinguished the three concepts of “sound”, “tone” and “Yue”, and established a very stable conceptual system in traditional musical ideology.
Here, “sound” refers to the sounds used as musical material expressing some feelings; “tone” refers to the tone that is formed by organising sounds, while “Yue” refers to the art form, which possesses the main features of acoustic art and is integrated with the art forms such as speech, vision and body shape as well as relevant cultural behaviours. I call such a musical ideology “the ontology of Yue(樂)”.
Therefore, I proposed the theory of three elements of musical existence and the theoretical distinction between the ontology of “Yue(樂)” and the ontology of “tone”. These are enlightened by the idea of “Yue(樂)” in the Chinese traditional musical ideology, and also reflect the properties of the wholeness way of thinking in traditional Chinese culture which were induced by many Chinese scholars already.
Historically speaking, in Chinese traditional musical ideology, there has never been such a concept as “the ontology of tone”, which was initiated by western musicologists (not the Ethnomusicologists).
Only after the 1980s, the Ethnomusicology has become well accepted in China. This started to shake the conception of “ontology of tone” from the western, and echoed the traditional Chinese “ontology of Yue(樂)”
From the view point of Chinese people, on musical existence, theories of ethnomusicology have significant correspondences with “the ontology of Yue(樂)” which is re-established on the bases of traditional Chinese musical ideology.
I believe that the academic joint effort derived from this combination will have tremendous and profound influence on the construction and development of Chinese musicology.

2.Synchronic Approach in Diachronic Studies—New Way of Studying the Chinese Music History

In contemporary Chinese musical study, Ethnomusicology focuses more on diachronic studies of the history, the forming reason and the dissemination of traditional music. On the other hand, synchronic approach is used in musical history study to understand music matters at some historical points. From Chinese scholars’ view points, diachronic study focuses on the historical development of some matters, while synchronic approach mainly studies the horizontal relationships of the existence of a matter. Thus, the synchronic approach in diachronic study emphasises the horizontal relationships in historical deployment.
In the study of Chinese ancient musical history, this new approach has been successfully applied in three ways.
(1) by synchronically studying some music matter at its particular historical point, new finding were discovered.
(2) To synchronically illustrate and analysis some musical matters in some particular time and regions.
(3) In studying Chinese ancient musical history, Chinese scholars have proposed the retrograde observation theory and emphasised the horizontal research approach.

呼应和互动:中国音乐史学与民族音乐学
——从“乐本体”和“在历时中展开共时”谈起

修海林(中国音乐学院)

1、中国“乐本体”音乐思维方式与民族音乐学“理论模式”在“本体论”层面上的呼应

有关音乐的存在方式、即“本体论”的问题,不仅是音乐学整个学科的基础理论问题,同时也是音乐学跨文化体系研究的理论前提。
早在先秦,中国人就已对“声”、“音”、“乐(樂)”三种概念作了区分,并形成传统音乐思想中最具稳定性的概念系统。在中国传统音乐思维中,音乐的概念,并不是象西方音乐学经常认为的那样,仅仅是“音(Tone)”,而是一个包括了形态、观念、行为这三要素在内的一个统合的概念。
其中,“声”,指被用作为乐音材料、表达情感的声音,“音”,指通过对“声”的组织、结构而形成的音调,“乐”,指即具有听觉艺术的主要特征、又与言语、视觉、形体等艺术形式和相关文化行为共构一体的艺术形式。这样的音乐观念,我称之为“乐本体”观念。
与此相关,我提出的音乐存在方式“三要素”理论以及对“乐本体”和“音本体”的理论分型,主要来自中国传统音乐思想中“乐”的观念的启迪,其中反映的是已经被许多中国学者归纳的中国传统文化中的整体性思维特点。
从历史上看,在中国传统音乐思想中,从来就没有西方音乐学(而非音乐人类学)中的“音本体”观念。只是到了近代,随着西方音乐学的知识传播,成为中国音乐学术发展中的强势学术,“音本体”的观念才在中国音乐学术界,逐步占有主导地位。
直到20世纪80年代以后,民族音乐学(Ethnomusicology)的学术思想逐步在中国音乐学界形成气候,这才动摇了传自西方的“音本体”音乐观念,并在客观上与中国古代的“乐本体”观念形成呼应。
从中国人的角度看,在音乐的存在方式这一学科理论的前提性问题上,音乐人类学的认识,已经与在中国传统音乐思想基础上重构的“乐本体”观念,在当代学术视野中,相互之间,形成了极有意义的呼应和共鸣。我想,由此产生的学术合力,对于中国音乐学的建设和发展,其影响必将是持久而巨大的。

2.“在历时中展开共时”——中国古代音乐史研究对民族音乐学研究方法的借鉴
在当代中国音乐学术界中,一个值得注意的现象是,民族音乐学的研究,比以往更重视从“历时”的角度去认识民族音乐的历史、生成原因和传播等音乐事象;而中国音乐史学,则开始重视从“共时”的角度,对历史上某一时间段的音乐事象进行研究。在中国学者的理解中,“历时”一般被理解为事物发展的纵向关系,“共时”,则被理解为事物存在的横向关系。所谓“在历时中展开共时”,在音乐史研究中,就是强调在纵向中作横向的展开。
在中国古代音乐史的研究中,如何“在历时中展开共时”,就目前的研究来看,比较有成效的,主要体现在以下个方面:
(1)通过对历史上某一时段的某种音乐事项,作“共时”的分析,由此产生新的认识成果。
(2)对历史上某一朝代某一区域的音乐事项,作“共时”的叙述和分析。
(3)中国学者在古代音乐史研究中,提出音乐史的“逆向考察”,并强调横向研究。

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Towards A New Era for the Study of Taiwan Music

Ying-fen Wang

DOWNLOAD Ying-fen Wang’s paper in Chinese and English here

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